End of life care for homeless people

The Care Quality Commission and Faculty for Homeless and Inclusion Health have published A second class ending: exploring the barriers and championing outstanding end of life care for people who are homeless.

This report draws on research findings which explored the challenges to palliative care for homeless people in London.  It explores homeless peoples’ views and experiences of palliative care and aims to understand how they believe support could be improved.  It includes a series of case studies and recommendations.

second class
Image source: http://www.cqc.org.uk

Key discussion points

  • The needs of homeless people are not well understood or considered by health and care services. Where services do exist, they are often fragmented and work in relative isolation.
  • These issues are exacerbated by a lack of training and support for frontline staff.
  • Identifying homeless people who may be dying is difficult. Involving homeless people in decisions about their treatment and care means striking the right balance between supporting them and respecting their individual choices.
  • Actively linking health care, social care, housing and voluntary services may improve the care options available.
  • Working together will help continuity of care – this needs a collaborative effort across services.
  • There must be a strategic, equality-led approach at a local level, delivering personalised care. We share examples of excellent primary care and specialist community services.
  • Hospices and primary care organisations in particular can play a key role in championing an equality-led approach.

Additional link: CQC press release


Challenges to access and provision of palliative care for people who are homeless

Hudson, B.F. et al. BMC Palliative Care. Published online: 3 December 2016


Background: People who are homeless or vulnerably housed are a marginalized group who often experience high rates of morbidity and die young as a result of complex problems. Access to health care and support can be challenging, with access to palliative care even more so. This review presents a synthesis of published qualitative research exploring from the perspective of homeless people and those working to support them, current challenges to palliative care access and provision, in addition to suggestions for what may improve palliative care for this population.


Conclusions: The provision of palliative care can be complicated for all populations, however delivering palliative care for people who are homeless is influenced by a potentially greater and more varied range of factors, on both individual and systemic levels, than providing palliative care for the housed population. Careful consideration and potentially great changes will be needed within health care systems to ensure homeless populations have equitable access to palliative care.

Read the full abstract and article here

Advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care interventions for homeless people: A systematic review

Sumalinog, R. et al. Palliative Medicine. Published online: 3 June 2016

Background: Homeless individuals have a high prevalence of multiple chronic comorbidities and early mortality compared to the general population. They also experience significant barriers to access and stigmatization in the healthcare system. Providing advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care for this underserved population is an important health issue.

Aim: To summarize and evaluate the evidence surrounding advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care interventions for homeless persons.

Design: A systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement.

Data sources: Articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and PubMed databases were searched through 13 June 2015. Peer-reviewed studies that implemented advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care interventions for homeless populations were included. Data from studies were independently extracted by two investigators using pre-specified criteria, and quality was assessed using modified Cochrane and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools.

Results: Six articles met inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomized controlled trials involving advance directive completion. Two cohort studies investigated the costs of a shelter-based palliative care intervention and predictors for completing advance directives. These studies were rated low to fair quality. Two qualitative studies explored the interface between harm-reduction services and end-of-life care and the conditions for providing palliative care for homeless persons in a support home.

Conclusion: The effectiveness of advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care interventions for homeless individuals is uncertain. High-quality studies of interventions that reflect the unique and complex circumstances of homeless populations and investigate patient-related outcomes, caregiver burden, and cost-effectiveness are needed.

Read the full article here

Minding the gap: access to palliative care and the homeless

Huynh, L. et al.  BMC Palliative Care 2015, 14:62 


With an ever increasing number of individuals living with chronic and terminal illnesses, palliative care as an emerging field is poised for unprecedented expansion. Today’s rising recognition of its key role in patients’ illnesses has led to increased interest in access to palliative care. It is known that homelessness as a social determinant of health has been associated with decreased access to health resources in spite of poorer health outcomes and some would argue, higher need. This article aims to discuss the current state of affairs with regards to accessing palliative care for the homeless in Canada.


Recent review of the literature reveals differential access to palliative care services and outcomes with differing socio-economic status (SES). Notably, individuals of lower SES and in particular, those who are homeless have poorer health outcomes in addition to poor access to quality palliative care. Current palliative care services are ill equipped to care for this vulnerable population and most programs are built upon an infrastructure that is prohibitive for the homeless to access its services. A preliminary review of existing Canadian programs in place to address this gap in access identified a paucity of sporadic palliative care programs across the country with a focus on homeless and vulnerably-housed individuals. It is apparent that there is no unified national strategy to address this gap in access.


The changing landscape of the Canadian population calls for an expansion of palliative care as a field and as many have put it, as a right. The right to access quality palliative and end of life care should not be confined to particular population groups. This article calls for the development of a unified national strategy to address this glaring gap in our healthcare provision and advocates for attention to and adoption of policy and processes that would support the homeless populations’ right to quality palliative care.

Read the full article here